Category Archives: Dr.Inphase Edu Series

Dr. InPhase Edu Series – How to use Krykard ALM-32/33/35 to carry out Power Quality Study

Hello Everybody. This is Dr. InPhase!!! In this dual part series I’ve already presented How to use Fluke 434-Series II for carry out Power Quality Study. In second part I’m going to walk through on How to use Krykard ALM-33/32/35 for carrying out Power Quality Study to record and analyze various Power Quality factors like Harmonics, Unbalance, Power Factor and so on.

KRYKARD ALM 32/33/35

  • To measure and record RMS voltage, current, power parameters in an electrical network.
  • To record the variations (power parameters) in the electrical network.

BASIC OPERATIONS

– Press to power up or power down the Krykard ALM-32/33/35 Analyser. The home screen shows RMS waveform for voltage and current.

DATE AND TIME

  • In home screen Press Configuration Button
  • Select Date/Time in Configuration screen
  • Press Enter button
  • Make the changes in DATE & TIME by using Navigation keys & Press ENTER.
  • Press Return button after the changes are made.

LANGUAGES & PHASE COLORS

  1. Measuring results belongs to different phases are presented with individual colors. Every region in the world having different sets of color code for the Phase sequences.
  2. Here we proceed with Indian region.
  3. The following steps are configuring the Phase Colors as well as Languages also.

FOR LANGUAGE

  • Press Configuration button
  • In Configuration screen, each Function keys belongs to different language.
  • In this screen the selected Function key belongs to English language.
  • Krykard ALM-32/33/35 offers 26 regional languages along with English.

FOR PHASE COLOR

  • Press Configuration button and Select Display
  • Press 2nd Function key for the Colors option
  • In this screen, we can change the voltage, current color coding of Phase & Neutral as per the region by using of Navigation keys.
  • If we select 1st Function key, there will be an option for Brightness adjusting. Brightness can be adjusted as per the requirement using Navigation keys.

  • If we select 3rd Function key, an option for automatic Display shutdown. Select Never/Automatic as per the requirement.

  • If we select 4th Function key, an option for Night mode. Activate/Deactivate as per our requirement.

WIRING SYSTEM CONFIGURATION

  1. Krykard ALM-32/33/35 has a several preprogrammed wiring setup of electrical system/equipment.
  2. Based on the system configuration like Three phase, Two Phase, Single Phase we can choose accordingly in the analyser also.
  3. The following steps are configuring the available wiring setup of Krykard ALM-32/33/35 for the electrical system which we want to analyse.

  • Press Configuration Button
  • Select Electrical Connection
  • Select the appropriate Configuration from the list of connections.
  • Available connections are- 3 Phase 3 Wire, 3 Phase 4 Wire, Single Phase 2 Wire, Split Phase 3 Wire.

ALM-33 CONNECTION CONFIGURATION

  • Connection example shown in the above picture.
  • Analyser we could use to connect in HT side (like 11kV, 33kV), LT side (like 415V, 690V) by taking CT and PT reference from the Breaker panel (ex. VCB).
  • We can analyse the load in feeder wise as well as connecting the particular load also (like VFD, DC Drive, etc.)

PT & CT PROBE SELECTION AND CONFIGURATIONS

  • This probe for connecting the PT reference side or PRIMARY side or Direct BUS BAR SIDE.

  • Press Configuration Button
  • Select Sensors and ratios and press Enter
  • Select the corresponding Function key for voltage (U)
    • 110V is common PT secondary voltage.
    • Select Ratio set-up and press Enter for Change PT ratio as per the Primary Voltage by using navigation keys.
    • Connecting in Live BUS BAR side PT ratio should be 3U 1/1
    • Example: Connecting in 33kV side VCB/Breaker side means PT ratio will be 0033.0k/0110.0
  • Press Enter after  the changes are made.
  • Press Return button after the changes.

  • This probe is for connecting in Measuring or Protection CT

  • The pictures show how to connect the probe in to the CT reference side.

  • Press Configuration Button
  • Select Sensors and ratios and press Enter
  • Select the corresponding Function key for current (A)
  • Select Ratio set-up 3A.
  • Press Enter after the changes are made (CT Ratio).
  • If we select Ratio set-up A1+A2+A3, for changing the CT ratio for individual phase.
  • For Neutral sensor, it is not available in ALM 33; By selecting 3 Phase 4 Wire configuration there will record Neutral Voltage & Current readings in virtual which we can by the display also.
  • Press Return button (Back to the previous screen)

 

  • This probe for connecting to the PRIMARY side or direct BUS BAR side.

  • Press Configuration Button
  • Select Sensors and ratios and press Enter
  • Select the corresponding Function key for current (A)
  • Select Ratio set-up 3A 1/1.
  • Set the ratio for 65A to 6500A. It can measure up to 1000A.
  • Press Return button (Back to the previous screen)

*After this above setup, the Analyser is ready for measurement.

MEASURING PROCEDURE

  1. After doing the initial setup now the Krykard ALM-32/33/35 is ready for taking the measurements.
  2. The following steps are for checking the connection and then proceed to start the measurement.

PHASE SEQUENCE

* The figures below explained for the correct connection setup.

This is the first thing should check for the connection verification.

  • After the connection is made, Press Waveform display Mode key the above screen will appear.
  • Use Navigation keys to see Voltage (3U) or Current (3A) waveform.
  • Select corresponding Function keys to see THD, CF (Crest Factor) and all.
  • Select this function key for Vector view of Current & Voltage (Explained detailed in below)
    • The below two screens are vector view of Voltage and Current.
    • In 3 Phase 3 Wire configuration, the directions should be clockwise and order should be Red-Yellow-Blue (RYB).

  • In 3 Phase 4 Wire configuration, the directions should be clockwise & order should be Red-Yellow-Blue (RYB)

  • Compare the Amperes and with Analyser and the connected Breaker panel side or Load side.
    • Check the amperes in the Multifunctional meter or Ammeter of the Breaker panel.
    • If the Ampere is not matching with the load side check the CT ratio fixed. If it is wrong change it accordingly.
  • if amperes match check the Directions of vector as per the above diagrams.
    • If the directions are not proper check the CT Probe direction in the breaker panel.
  • Both Amperes should match.

POWER & ENERGY

  • Press  Power parameter mode key, the above screen will appear.
    • Check the Actual Power (W), Apparent Power (VA),
    • Both values should be in Positive (+ve).
    • If the values are Negative (-ve) invert the CT probe direction fixed in the breaker panel.
    • Check for the Phase Sequence/CT probe direction in Breaker panel.

HARMONICS

  • Press Harmonics mode key, the above screen will appear.
  • We can see the harmonics in % and in terms of Amperes for voltage as well as current by using navigation keys in the screen.
  • Use corresponding Function key for seeing Voltage Harmonics (U) / Current Harmonics (A).
  • Till 50th order voltage and current harmonics recording available.

TREND MODE

  • Press button and select Trend mode the above screen will appear.
  • This is for selection of parameters we wanted to record.
  • Use corresponding Function keys to Select/Unselect the parameter.
  • After selecting all the parameters, Press Return button for the previous screen.
  • Then select Trend mode key for Start the recording.

TREND MODE is the function used to Start Measurements & Monitor the readings.

  • After selecting Trend mode key recording list screen will appear.
  • Select the Function key for Recording schedule, the above screen will appear.
  • Enter the Record Name, Star & Stop time by using Navigation Keys.
  • Period is the sampling time for data recording.
    • 20s (seconds) means the analyser will record every 20 seconds per data.
    • The data will be the Minimum, Maximum & Average of 20 seconds data.
    • In Krykard ALM-32/33/35 the Interval limit from 1s (Seconds) to 15 mins (Minutes).
  • After entering all the details Press this button to start.
  • After starting the recording the below screen will appear.

  • During recording time, we will be able to see THD, RMS, Current & Voltage Phase sequence, Crest Factor, Power Parameters by selecting Function keys & Mode keys.

  • After reaching STOP TIME / Finishing the measurement, it will SAVE automatically.
  • If we want to STOP in between the measurement Press in Trend mode screen, it will stop immediately and save the records. We can stop the measurement in between the record time.
  • In that Trend mode select the recording list will appear. In this we can see the recorded measurements and the waveform of the record by Enter the selected record.

Check out:  Fluke-435 Tutorial

Thanks for reading this article. Will see you again with a new article. Until then bye from Dr. InPhase!!! For any feedback contact us to info@inphase.in or call +919632421402.

 

Dr InPhase Edu Series – An Exercise in Reactive Power Calculation

Doctor_Character-04-1Good day every body, Today on our Edu Series we will focus on some practical knowledge related to Reactive Power calculation.  Calculating your reactive power is critical as it can help make sure that your design is reliable and you get a reliable power factor output.

Consider an electrical network with the details below,

Demand = 2500kVA; Initial PF1 = 0.76; Desired PF2=0.97.

The reactive power required to achieve the desired PF (0.97), is calculated as below:

We know that

Where φ is the angle between voltage and current vectors.

From the above,

Now here arises the doubt. We say, the above method of calculation is flawed. There is a fundamental electrical engineering mistake. Before you go on any further, we would like you to think and comment in the comments section below if you find the flaw. Because once you scroll down, you are likely to lose your unique perspective on the above. Therefore, please comment and proceed for the answer below. This can help knowledge sharing with numerous angles / perceptions. Thanks in advance for that.

———————————————————————————————————————————-

The mistake is in Point ②. We have considered the same kVA for ① where the pf is 0.76, and② where the pf is 0.97. When actually, it is Real Power or kW which remains constant. Load remains unchanged, which in other words translates into constant kW and NOT constant kVA.  The same is shown in the diagram below:

From the above diagram, we know now the ‘kvar’ required to improve the system from PF1 to PF2 (i.e, 0.76 to 0.97) is,

Applying Pythagoras theorem for the above diagram,

And,

Which implies, [kvar1 = kW × tan φ1] and [kvar2 = kW × tan φ2]. Substituting these in equation ④,

In terms of power factors,

This is a generic formula to calculate the reactive power demand when the present power factor and the desired power factor are known. The same formula reduces to the following for desired power factor being Unity.

Where φ is the power factor angle.

We sincerely hope that this exercise helps you in calculating reactive power demand with more clarity.

Do you have a Challenging Power Factor Correction or Compensation issue, no matter how dynamic your load or reactive power is we can find the right solution for you. Get in touch with us today.

This article was originally published in www.pqindia.in.

The author Mr. Hasan Mydin is part of the “Advanced Power Quality Solutions” department at InPhase. He is a self-confessed Power Quality enthusiast with more than a decade’s experience solving power quality problems across India and even abroad. To know more about him, check out  his LinkedIn Profile.

Meet you again with a interesting article, until then  bye from Dr.InPhase

Thank you!

Doctor_Character-71

Thanks for reading…if you have questions don’t forget to ask me. You could write to me to info@inphase.in or call +919632421402

Active Harmonic Filter – Working Principle

Doctor_Character-71The quest for human existence boils down to solving problems around us in the process to making the world a better place. What is generally observed is that a new problem pops up every time we think we have a solved a longstanding issue. This is a perpetual cycle, probably even necessary for our existence. Nevertheless, the big problems of our times in the Power Quality domain are power factor, harmonics and unbalance. The  many reasons for poor power quality can be attributed to the types of loads in use. More complex loads lead to more power problems.

Many solutions have been proposed for power quality problems. But there is one that stands out – the IGBT based voltage source converter, popularly known as Active Harmonic Filter. This article is an attempt to convey just how much the Active Harmonic Filter is capable of and how it makes it all possible. In simple terms we have set foot to explain the working principle of Active Harmonic Filter Shortly the Active Filter. 

The ever increasing load complexity

At first, consider the load to be purely resistive; a simple incandescent lamp maybe, just to make things more “real” (pun intended). In such a case, only real power will be drawn from the grid. Just when things are going smooth, we decide to connect an induction motor at the load end. But, the induction motor requires an excitation current in the field coils for its desired operation. Hence, drawing pure real current from the grid is no more sufficient. Therefore, in addition to the real power, a new component, namely reactive power is drawn from the grid.

As our next step in this experiment, we introduce a new “problem” in our setup. We deliberately rearrange our loads such that they are not balanced, i.e. the current drawn in the three individual phases are not equal. In technical terms we call this phenomenon, load unbalance. Just for representation, it is shown as if unbalance is a new component being drawn from the grid. In reality, however, unbalance is a “phenomenon” and not a “component”. The idea of this representation will be disclosed in the following lines.

Just as we might begin to think that things couldn’t get any worse, drives-based motor control system is introduced! This power electronic marvel starts functioning; and consequently introduces harmonics in our power system. Therefore at this point in time, our power system suffers from the following problems – low power factor, load unbalance and harmonics.

The solution

Now that all possible problems have arisen in the system, it is time to introduce the hero – the Active Filter. For the sake of representation, let us assume that the Active Filters kills the problems one-by-one. Starting with reactive power, it is seen that the reactive power being imported from the transformer is compensated by a counter-acting power from the Active Filter. In an alternate view, it can also be seen as if the reactive power requirement of the load is fed by the Active Filter. Unbalance in a system can be attributed to presence of negative sequence components and zero sequence components of currents.  Active filter is capable of eliminating the negative sequence and zero sequence components from the electrical system, as shown. Here is a case study on Unbalance Compensation if you want to learn more about it. Subsequently, on elimination of unbalance, harmonics is the only problem left to be solved in the system.

The Active Filter senses the current from the CTs connected within the plant. With this input, the controller present in the Active Filter catches the harmonic content and pumps the same current in anti-phase. In this manner the harmonics are cancelled out in the system.

We hope that this article answers, in brief, the million dollar question of “How exactly does an Active Filter work?” Thank you for reading and hope to see you soon with a new article!

Meet you again with a interesting article, until then  bye from Dr.InPhase

Thank you!

Doctor_Character-71

Thanks for reading…if you have questions don’t forget to ask me. You could write to me to info@inphase.in or call +919632421402

IInphaseLogo(300dpi) (1)nPhase Power is a Power Electronic Product company and manufacturer of products for Power Quality and Power Conversion. InPhase is manufacturer of Active Filter, Active Harmonic Filter, Solar Inverter. InPhase majors in power system design for power quality and conversion. Driven by a management that has a combined experience of over 60 years in power system and power electronics InPhase nurtures innovation and passion in this field.

Dr.InPhase Edu Series – Video Tutorial on using Fluke 435 For Power Quality Measurement

Dear All,

Fluke 435 InPhase TutorialFurther to the overwhelming response to our tutorial on using Fluke 434 for Power Quality measurements we have now launched a new video tutorial. What is so special is that I have roped in Mr.Hasan Mydin a top notch power quality expert in the world. It is a twenty minute tutorial that outlines that covers end to end on the usage of Fluke for Power Quality measurement.

Topics Covered

  1. How to setup Fluke Meter
  2. Different configurations in which measurements can be obtained.
  3. Measurement topology
  4. Handling different site conditions
  5. User interface of Fluke 435
  6. Detail explanation on Operations of the meter

If you have not read our step by step tutorial on Fluke 434 Series for Power Quality. Please check it here. How to Use Fluke 434 For Power Quality measurement

Please do share your feed back after watching this video.

Happy learning and catch you soon with more news about Power Quality and much more.

Thanks for reading…if you have questions don’t forget to ask me. You could write to me to info@inphase.in or call +919632421402

IInphaseLogo(300dpi) (1)nPhase Power is a Power Electronic Product company manufacturing products for Power Quality and Power Conversion. InPhase is manufacturer of Active Filter, Active Harmonic Filter, Solar Inverter. InPhase majors in power system design for power quality and conversion. Driven by a management that has a combined experience of over 60 years in power system and power electronics InPhase nurtures innovation and passion in this field.

InPhase Power Active Harmonic Filter and Load Unbalance Compensation – A Case Study

Doctor_Character-04-1Well Good day readers, Today I bring to you a very interesting case study of how InPhase helped one of our customers to achieve Unbalance compensation. I was very impressed with our team on the effort that they have given on this as they made the customers extremely delighted. I hope you all enjoy reading it as well.

The brief story

InPhase Active Harmonic Filters are an all-in-one package, capable of compensating for reactive currents, harmonic currents and unbalance currents, we claim. However, in most sites InPhase was tasked to compensate for reactive and harmonic currents alone. Then, came along a company. We will call it ‘ABC’. ABC approached us saying they had a problem of current unbalance, and that they were being threatened penalisation and disconnection of the supply by the Utility, for the same.

ABC had approached various other well-known names in the PQ industry, but none were prepared to propose a solution. And so, InPhase conducted a PQ Analysis at their site. The study results were appalling. Currents in the 3 phases read: 175A, 352A and 174A respectively.

InPhase proposed to install our beloved Active Harmonic Filter to mitigate this problem. ABC said “Go ahead, do anything. Just fix this problem for us.” And so, the InPhase Active Harmonic Filter was installed at the site.

Everybody, including us, held their breaths. “Will it work?” was the question in everyone’s minds. Then came the time, to find the answer. Annnnd Lo! The phase currents read: 52A, 50A and 51A.

Everyone’s apprehension about the InPhase Active Harmonic Filter had turned into awe. The Managing Director of ABC going to the extent of saying “Dr. InPhase has come down to save us like Lord Vishnu (Hindu god; Preserver of everything and everyone in the Universe).” Not only did the Active Harmonic Filter go on to mitigate the unbalance, it was also compensating for reactive and harmonic currents, all at the same time.

If ever there was a happy ending, this was it. 🙂


The technical explanation

Moving on to the technical side of the problem. The cause for current unbalance of such magnitude was the nature of load being 2-phase. The currents before compensation in R, Y and B phases were 175A, 352A and 174A respectively. You might notice how the current in Y-phase was double that of R and B phases. Excellent observation, that! Now, here is the explanation:

Picture3

The above diagram shows a delta-star step-down transformer. The outer windings represent the primary of the transformer. The windings on the inner side represent the secondary. Notice that the load is connected to the secondary across two phases only i.e. R and B.

The load forces the current direction in the secondary windings as indicated by Ir and Ib. Since the phase r and b are connected in series, Ir= Ib.

Ir and Ib are secondary currents induced from primary currents IRY and IRB. Subsequently,
IRY = IRB = I. Note also, how the direction of secondary currents differ from their corresponding primary currents.

From Kirchoff’s current law, incoming current at node R must be I+I = 2I.

The outgoing currents from node Y and B are ‘I’ each. What is observed here is that one phase carries twice the amount of current than the other two individual phases. This explains the observed readings of 175A, 352A and 174A.

It is a known fact that current has three components viz. positive sequence, negative sequence and zero sequence. Since our incoming current is through a 3-ph 3-wire system, we can ignore the zero sequence component.

Also, let us recall that both positive and negative sequence components are “balanced”, individually. It is only when they combine, unbalance occurs in the load current.  Just to be on the same page, let us understand what a “balanced current” means. In a 3-ph system, is the current flowing in each phase is equal, the system is said to be balanced in simple terms.

The magnitude of unbalance is calculated in percentage.

IMG_1

The calculation for this case would go as follows:

IR=352A ; IY=175A ; IB=174A

The average current,

IMG_2

Maximum deviation from Iavg = 352-233.67 = 118.33A

Therefore,

IMG_3

As a consequence of NEMA Standard MG-1, acceptable limit on current unbalance is 10%. Clearly, the unbalance in this industry was far from acceptable.

Now that the cause and magnitude of the problem were known, the next step was to mitigate it. And, to meet this objective, InPhase Active Harmonic Filter was installed.

It should be noted that the initial current readings IR=352A, IY=175A, IB=174A are a combination of reactive currents, harmonic currents and unbalance currents. And because we are concentrating exclusively on unbalance, let us take an arbitrary example to understand the same.

Picture1

In the above example, the incoming currents are 100A, 100A and 40A. The underlying assumption here is that these currents are purely unbalance currents and they have no reactive or harmonic component.

InPhase Active Harmonic Filter takes feedback from 3-ph CTs. This allows the Active Harmonic Filter to measure current flowing in each line. Subsequently, this input is processed by the main controller in the equipment. The Active Harmonic Filter being an AC-DC-AC converter, can absorb and pump current from the line to the load such that the incoming current from the metering point is balanced.

The controller is capable of calculating the positive sequence component and negative sequence component from this input. Once this is calculated, it is a simple case of pumping the counteractive current to the negative sequence component, so that all that remains is the positive sequence. Recollect that positive sequence current is balanced and thus consequently, the line current is also balanced.

Picture2

The above diagram is a representation of the aforementioned compensation process. Note how the line currents are balanced (80A each) whereas the load currents (100A, 100A and 40A) remain unchanged.

This way, the customer is happy that his electrical system is healthy, and the Utility is happy that the consumer’s loads are balanced and the grid is stable. Lastly, Dr. InPhase is also happy that he made it all possible. 🙂

It is time now, for you to experience the InPhase Active Harmonic Filter. Get in touch with us, we’ll help you to get your Power Quality problems resolved.

Thank you!

Doctor_Character-71

 

Thanks for reading…if you have questions don’t forget to ask me. You could write to me to info@inphase.in or call +919632421402

IInphaseLogo(300dpi) (1)nPhase Power is a Power Electronic Product company manufacturing products for Power Quality and Power Conversion. InPhase is manufacturer of Active Filter, Active Harmonic Filter, Solar Inverter. InPhase majors in power system design for power quality and conversion. Driven by a management that has a combined experience of over 60 years in power system and power electronics InPhase nurtures innovation and passion in this field.

Dr.InPhase Edu Series – How to use FLUKE 434-SERIES II for Power Quality Analysis

Dr InPhase Edu Series PQ

Hello Everybody, Hi from Dr.InPhase. In our today’s educational series we are going to learn something very important and rudimentary for Power Quality. That is learning how to measure power quality using one of the popular Power Quality analysis equipment in the market the Fluke 434-II Series. If you have feedback don’t forget to write to info@inphase.in or drinphase@inphase.in

Power Quality is gaining a lot of prominence and priority in the market. The first step towards a better Power Quality is to conduct an analysis. Carrying out complete Power Quality requires a very good Power Analyzer.

At InPhase Power we carry out a lot of Power Quality Analysis study at various industries like Steel/Cement/Automobile/Paper/Process… etc. We use Fluke 434-II and Krykard ALM 33 Power Analyzers for this purpose.

In this multi-part series blog I am going to walk you through on how to carry out Power Quality Study to analyze and record various Power Quality factors like Harmonics, Unbalance, Power Factor, Flickers, etc…

The first part we will focus on Fluke 434-II which is a popular Power Quality analyzer and the posts to come later will focus on using Krykard ALM 33 and the process to analyse this data .

FLUKE 434-II

Fluke 434-II

  • Used for energy logging.
  • Measure the before and after installation improvement in Power Quality or Energy Consumption to justify the devices like Active Harmonic Filters, APFC, etc.
  • Detect and prevent Power Quality issues before they cause any issues.
  • Verify electrical system capacity before adding loads, and to Amylase the load pattern.

BASIC OPERATIONS

Basic operations-1

1– Press to power up or down the Fluke Analyzer. The home screen shows what                   Analyzer settings are currently in use.

DISPLAY INFORMATION

Display info

  • This is home screen when the analyzer gets TURN ON.
  • In this screen we can see basic configurations like Phase colors, Connection configuration, Choosing of CT probe and ratios.

MENU NAVIGATION

Menu navi

DATE & TIME

  • In home screen Press Setup Button
  • Press F4(MANUAL SETUP)
  • Select TIME in Home screen
  • Press ENTER
  • Made the changes in TIME & Press ENTER
  • Press F3 it will switch to DATE Adjustments
  • Made the changes in DATE & Press ENTER
  • Press F5 (Back to Home Screen)

LANGUAGES & PHASE COLORS

  1. Measuring results belongs to different phases are presented with individual colors. Every region in the world having different sets of color code for the Phase sequences.
  2. Here we proceed with UK region which is used in India also.
  3. The following steps are configuring the Phase Colors as well as Languages also.

Lang&Phase colours

  • Press Setup Button
  • Select F1 (USER PREF.)
  • Select Language –> Press ENTER
    • In that menu Select the Language desired & Press F5
  • Select Phase Colors –> Press ENTER.
    • In that menu select the region or customize the Colors & Press ENTER.
  • Press F5 (Back to Home screen)

WIRING SYSTEM CONFIGURATION

  1. FLUKE 434-II has a several pre-programmed wiring setups of electrical system/equipment.
  2. Based on the system configuration like Three Phase, Two Phase, Single Phase we can choose accordingly in the analyzer also.

The following steps are configuring the available wiring setup of FLUKE 434-II for the electrical system which we want to analyze.

Wiring sys config

  • Press Setup Button
  • Select F4 (MANUAL SETUP)
  • Select Config: –> Press ENTER
    • In that menu Select the Appropriate Configuration

Wiring sys config-2

  • Select Freq:–> Press ENTER.
    • In that menu select the Nominal Frequency.
    • 50 Hz is used in Europe, most of Africa, most of Asia, most of South America and Australia.
  • Select Vnom:–> Press ENTER.
    • In that menu select the Nominal Frequency.
    • 230V is used in Europe, most of Africa, most of Asia, most of South America and Australia.
  • Press F5 (Back to Home screen)

*In North America, the most common combination is 120 V and a frequency of 60 Hz

 

FLUKE 434-II CONNECTION CONFIGURATION

Fluke 434 connec config

NOTE: For connecting in 3-Phase 3-Wire system, Neutral probe connection can be neglected for CT as well as PT.

Fluke 434 connec config-2Fluke 434 connec config-3

  • Connection example shown in the above picture.
  • Analyser we could use to connect in HT side (like 11kV, 33kV), LT side (like 415V, 690V) by taking CT and PT reference from the Breaker panel (ex. VCB).
  • We can analyse the load in feeder wise as well as connecting the particular load also (like VFD, DC Drive, etc.)

CT & PT PROBES SELECTION AND COFIGURATIONSPT Probe

  • This probe for connecting the PT reference side or PRIMARY side or Direct BUS BAR SIDE.

PT

  • Press Setup Button
  • Press F4(MANUAL SETUP)
  • Select PHASE & NEUTRAL SETTINGS
  • Press ENTER
  • Press F4 –>
    • Change PT ratio as per the Primary Voltage.
    • 110V is common PT secondary voltage.
    • Connecting in Live BUS BAR side PT ratio should be 1:1
    • Example: Connecting in 11kV side VCB means PT ratio will be 11000:110 or 100:1
  • Press Enter after made the changes.
  • Press F4 do the changes in Neutral probe connection (OPTIONAL).
  • Press F5(Back to the Home Screen)

CT flex

  • This probe for connecting to the PRIMARY side or direct BUS BAR side.
  • For this CT ratio should be 1:1.

CT i430

  • Press Setup Button
  • Press F4(MANUAL SETUP)
  • Select PHASE & NEUTRAL SETTINGS
  • Press ENTER
  • Select AMP CLAMP –>
    • Change as per the Clamp connected (i430Flex, i5s, others)
  • Press Enter after made the changes (CT Ratio).
  • Press F4 do the changes in Neutral probe connection (OPTIONAL).
  • Press F5(Back to the Home Screen)

CT i5s

  • This probe is for connecting in Measuring or Protection CT side.

CT i5s last

  • The picture shows how to connect the probe in to the CT reference side.CT Clamp
    • Press Setup Button
    • Press F4(MANUAL SETUP)
    • Select PHASE & NEUTRAL SETTINGS
    • Press ENTER
    • Select AMP CLAMP –>
      • Change as per the Clamp connected (i430Flex, i5s, others)
    • Press Enter after made the changes (CT Ratio).
    • Press F4 do the changes in Neutral probe connection (OPTIONAL).
    • Press F5(Back to the Home Screen)

     

    *After this above setup the Analyser is ready for measurement.

     

    MEASURING PROCEDURE

    1. After doing the initial setup now the Fluke Analyzer is ready for taking the measurements.
    2. The following steps are for checking the connection and then proceed to start the measurement.

    PHASE SEQUENCE

    * The figures below explained for the correct connection setup.

    This is the first thing have to check for the connection verification.

Scope screen buttonScope Screen

  • After made the connection, Select Scope–>The above screen will appear
  • Press F1–>Switch to see Voltage or Current waveform
  • F2–>Cursor will appear for see the particular instant values (Use navigation keys to move the cursor)
  • F4–>Zoom in or Zoom out the waveform (Use navigation keys to Zoom in or Zoom out)
  • F5–>Back to the Home Screen
  • F3–>Vector view of Current & Voltage (Explained detailed in below)
    • These two screens are vector view of Voltage and Current
    • Press F1–>for switching the screen from Voltage to Current or Current to Voltage.
    • The directions should be clockwise & order should be Red-Yellow-Blue (RYB)

Scope-3

  • Compare the Amperes and with Analyzer and the connected Breaker panel side or Load side.
    • Check the amperes in the Multi-functional meter or Ammeter of the Breaker panel.
    • If the Ampere not matching with the load side check the CT ratio fixed. If it is wrong change it accordingly.
  • Amperes are matched check the Directions of vector as per the above diagrams.
    • If the directions are not proper check the CT Probe direction in the breaker panel.
  • Both Amperes should match.
  • After this check go to–>MENU

POWER & ENERGY

scope-4

  • Select–>POWER & ENERGY
    • Check the Actual Power(W), Apparent Power (VA)
    • Both values should be in Positive(+ve)
    • If the values are Negative (-ve) invert the CT probe direction fixed in the breaker panel.
    • Check for the fixing of CT probe direction in Breaker panel.
  • Press–>F5 (HOLD OR RUN)
  • Select–>F1 (DISCARD & EXIT)–>MENU Screen will appear.

HARMONICS

har

  • Select–>HARMONICS
    • We can see the harmonics % in voltage as well as current by scrolling down in the screen.
    • Till 50th order voltage and current harmonics recording available.

indiv harm

  • Press–>F2 (HARMONIC GRAPH VIEW)
    • We can see individual order of harmonics % and Amperes in each Phase.
    • Press–>F1 (Switch to see Voltage, Current, Watt Harmonics)
    • Press–>F2 (Viewing of individual phase Harmonics)
    • Press–>F3 (Back to Recording screen)
  • Press–>F5 (HOLD OR RUN)
  • Select–>F1 (DISCARD & EXIT)–>MENU Screen will appear.

 

LOGGER

Logger button

LOGGER is the function used to Start Measurements & Monitor the readings.

Screen-10

  • After selected the LOGGER button the above screen will appear
  • INTERVAL is the sampling time for data saving.
    • 10s (seconds) means the analyzer will record every 10 seconds per data.
    • The data will be the Maximum & Average of 10 seconds data.
    • In Fluke Analyzer the Interval limit from 0.25s (Seconds) to 2h (Hours)
  • Press–>F2 (CHANGE NAME for changing the measurement name as per wish)
  • Press–>F1 (SETUP READINGS)

Screen-11

  • This screen will appear
    • This is for selection of parameters we wants to record.
    • Each CATEGORY having set of parameters displayed in READINGS column.
    • Press–>F3 for Selecting the parameters we want.
    • Like this we have to do for each CATEGORY.
  • Screens displayed below explain about the parameter selection.

Screen-11 Screen-12 Screen-13 Screen-14 Screen-15 Screen-16 Screen-17

  • The parameters chosen here all are standard Power Parameters with 25th order Voltage & Current harmonics recording are used to analyze the load pattern of an Industry power, Understanding of Power Quality problems like Harmonic & Reactive power compensation.
  • Press–>F5–>After selecting all the parameters wants to measure–>LOGGER Screen will appear.

Screen-10

  • Duration of recording from minimum 1hr to maximum of 7days in Immediate
  • We can able to start measurement by scheduling in timed
  • After setup the measurement duration PressàF5 (START the measurement)
  • The below screen will appear.

logger measurement

By scrolling down this screen we can see the parameters we have selected before starting the measurement.

  • After finishing the measurements it will ask for SAVE.
  • If we want to STOP in between the measurement PressàF5(HOLD or RUN)
  • Press–>F1(DISCARD & EXIT)
    • To stop the measurement at any time.
  • Press–>F2(DISCARD & RESTART)
    • To restart the measurement.
  • Press F4–>(SAVE)
    • Save the recorded data–>SAVE Screen will appear.
    • In that screen, we can change the recorded data name as we want.
    • Press F5–>OK to save the data.

FEATURES

Features

SAVE SCREEN/SCREENSHOT

  • This is function for save the Running display as an image during Measuring time
    • We can save the SCOPE screen, LOGGER screen for the reference.
  • Press SAVE SCREEN–>Save Screen Menu will appear
  • Fix the name as we want or the default will be SCREEN XX (Number).
  • Press ENTER–>Save the screen
  • Press F5–>BACK to previous screen

MEMORY

After finishing the measurement we can see the recorded files and delete the unwanted recordings from MEMORY function.

  • Press MEMORY Button
  • Press F1–> RECALL or DELETE
    • In that menu the recorded files will appear.
    • Select the desired data by using the navigation keys.
    • Press F2–>VIEW the selected data.
    • Press F3–>DELETE the selected data.
    • Press F4–>RENAME the selected data.
    • Press F5–>RECALL the selected data.
      • This option will replay the entire measurement.
    • Press F1–>Back to the previous screen.

Thanks for reading this article. I hope this was helpful to you. In the upcoming parts I will detail about how to measure using Krykard ALM 33 Power Quality Analyzer and also discuss in detail how the data extracted from these equipment’s can be used to analyze power quality.

If you are interested to conduct a Power Quality Study InPhase Power is ready to support you. Contact us @ info@inphase.in or +919632421402

Dr.InPhase Edu Series – Active Harmonic Filter

Howdy!! Everyone

Active Harmonic Filter Education seriesIt is Dr.InPhase Power again. Our today’s edu series will focus on educating our readers better about Active Harmonic Filter. Our team has taken efforts to list down the 16 mostly asked question about Active Harmonic filter and the corresponding answers. I hope it gives you better understanding of harmonic filters. Should you have more questions we are happy to answer it mail us to info[@]inphase.in. I will be happy to answer.

 

  1. What are harmonics?

In an electrical circuit, when a fundamental AC sine wave gets distorted, it causes additional frequency which are integer multiple of fundamental frequency. As per Indian standards, fundamental frequency is 50Hz. So the frequency of the harmonics are as follows 150Hz (3rd order), 250Hz (5th order) and so on.

  1. Effects of Harmonics
  • Conductor over heating
  • Overload and premature ageing of Power Factor Correction capacitors
  • False or spurious operations of fuses and circuit breakers
  • Increase in iron and copper losses or eddy current due to stray flux losses at transformers
  • Operation instability at generators
  • Energy meters may record incorrectly resulting in excess billing to customers
  • Computer and its peripherals may experience interference or failure
  1. Which order harmonics has to be mitigated and monitored?

The most significant harmonic orders in three-phase distribution networks are the odd orders (3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13 ….)
Triple-n harmonics (order multiple of 3) are present only in three-phase, four-wire systems, when single phase loads are connected between phase and neutral.
Utilities are mainly focusing on low harmonic orders (5, 7, 11, and 13).Generally speaking, harmonic conditioning of the lowest orders (up to 13) is sufficient. More comprehensive conditioning takes into account harmonic orders up to 25.Harmonic amplitudes normally decrease as the frequency increases. Sufficiently accurate measurements are obtained by measuring harmonics up to order 30.
 

  1. What are the different harmonic mitigation techniques?
    • Isolation transformers
    • Line reactors
    • Harmonic filters (Active harmonic filter and Passive harmonic filters)
  1. What is a  Active Harmonic Filter / Passive Filter? 

Passive Filters:
Based on the harmonic analysis or report.  A LC circuit is tuned and connected parallel to each non-linear loads to remove the respective harmonic orders. Thus preventing the harmonics to flow in the distribution network

Active Filters:
Power electronic conditioners are connected across each non-linear loads that produces harmonics. This filters injects in opposite phase the harmonics drawn by the non-linear loads resulting in pure sinusoidal current.

  1. Why active harmonic filter are preferred instead of passive filter
  • Active Harmonic Filter analyses the load by itself and one need not know the harmonic in the load as in case of passive harmonic filter.
  • Active Harmonic Filter is immune to the main frequency variation whereas the passive harmonic filter is very much sensitive to the frequency of the mains power.
  • Active Harmonic Filter can take care of the changes in the non-linearity of the load current whereas Passive Harmonic Filter can’t take care of the changes in the load current pattern.
  • Active Harmonic Filter can filter the harmonics up to 31st harmonic. The Passive Harmonic Filter is very difficult to tune as the harmonics beyond 11th. And it is ineffective in case of harmonics beyond 11th harmonic.
  1. A) How to detect harmonics in the electrical system

Occurrences like flickering of lights, alarms going off, or MCB’s, MCCB’s, RCD’s and Earth Leakage devices tripping for no apparent reason.

Cables getting hot, hot switchboards or overheating motors. Replacing motor’s bearings & insulation often is a strong indication of the presence of harmonics.
(or)

  1. B) What are the essential indicators of harmonic distortion and measurement principles?

Power Factor, Crest Factor, Harmonic spectrum and R.M.S

  1. Do Active power filter help in improving the power factor?

Real power is used to perform real work, but Inductive loads require Real and Reactive power of their operation. Utilities provide apparent power (Apparent Power = Real Power + Reactive Power) Reactive power performs no work. However, the flow of reactive current, a component of reactive power, does consume energy as it passes through resistive elements of the power system, thus reducing overall system efficiency. This reactive power is used to generate magnetic fields within motors, transformers, and other magnetic devices. Reactive power, combined with harmonic currents, contribute to poor power factor in electrical systems. The capacitors inherent in harmonic filters design, supply the necessary reactive power so the utility doesn’t have to. The reduction in harmonic currents further improves the ratio of active power to apparent power. This overall improvement to true power factor assists in the efficient operation of facilities and the avoidance of possible poor power factor.

  1. Why to improve Power Factor?
  • Reduction in cost of electricity
  • Reduction in cable size
  • Reduction in losses
  1. Can I use Active Harmonic Filter on multiple connected systems

Harmonic filters are designed to focus on drive-applied applications but can be sized for multiple motor systems as well. Caution must be taken to size the unit properly as well as to take all of the power system variables into consideration.

  1. Can I use Active Harmonic Filter when the loads are powered by the Generator?

You can use on generator power; however it is more critical to size the device properly. If the nonlinear load represents a great portion of the total generator load and the drive is very lightly loaded, the filter capacitance may cause the generator to experience voltage regulation issues. You may also contact the generator provider for their guidelines on the use of harmonic mitigation and capacitive equipment on their systems.

  1. Does Active harmonic filter available for 240V systems?

One can use a three phase reactor in a single phase circuit that will perform limited mitigation

  1. Why power factor analysis has to be done before installing capacitors?

Harmonic analysis has to be performed before installation of power factor improvement capacitor to ensure that resonance frequency (Harmonic Resonance) do  not correspond with prominent harmonics contained in current and voltage. It would affect / damage capacitor banks when offending frequency is large enough during resonant condition.There is high probability that other loads would also get damaged.

  1. Where to place the Active Harmonic Filter for harmonic mitigation?
    • At the load
    • At the transformer
    • At the primary distribution

The best place to remove harmonic currents is often at the nonlinear loads that generate harmonic currents or, alternately, at the sub-panels that supply the branch circuits. The object is to reduce harmonic current at a point that is as-close-as-possible to the harmonic generating nonlinear loads and also it depends on different applications. The reduction of harmonic current will result in the reduction of ‘penalty’ losses.

  1. What are the factors to consider when specifying an active harmonic filter?

Losses, harmonic compensation capacity, response speed, Inter harmonics, EMC, De-rating, physical footprint, modularity, commissioning software, HMI, Smart grid functionality, IP/NEMA class and water cooling, voltage

  1. What does K-Rating of a transformer mean?

K-Factor rating, applied to transformers, is an index of the transformer’s ability to supply harmonic content (%THDI) in its load current while operating within its temperature limits. K-Rated transformers are only intended to survive in a harmonic rich environment. They do not mitigate harmonic currents or voltages.

Meet you again with a interesting read. until then bye bye!! from Dr.InPhase Power. Your Power Quality Partner.Doctor welcome

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

At InPhase Power we are very serious about improving the power quality of the nation. Our products provide unmatched improvement in Power Quality by effectively curbing harmonics and maintaining steady power factor. Explore our Products Active Harmonic Filter(IPC150-AHF) and STATCOM (IPC150-SCOM) to find how they can improve your power quality.